Second, it compares the housework of both employed single women and those living with a partner, in contrast to existing studies that have focused exclusively on women in relationships. In order to focus on the comparisons among women rather than on the gender division of labor, I rely on absolute housework time instead of measures of housework share. Assessing the housework of unpartnered women is crucial to fully understanding the way housework impacts women, in particular the link between paid and unpaid work and the possible role of family relationships in exacerbating or mitigating regional differences.
- Consequently, I do not include women who do not participate in market work since they do not have earnings and they have no measurable constraints on their domestic labor.
- Gearing up for the war and waging it obliged Nazi leaders to mobilize female workers.
- There is evidence that entry into a heterosexual union increases women’s time spent on housework while simultaneously reducing men’s, thus suggesting that the process of doing gender is more pronounced in traditionally gendered contexts (Gupta, 1999; South and Spitze, 1994).
- The time availability aspect of women’s work is measured by the number of hours worked for pay per week.13 In later parts of the analyses, I distinguish between full-time and part-time employees, using 30 hours per week as a threshold for full-time versus part-time employment.
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Part-time workers’ housework time is more affected by their economic resources, indicating that full-time workers are not as effective as part-time workers in translating their earnings power in less housework. In examining the intersection between the East-West disparity and the full-time/part-time divide in housework, I find that the differences in the role of paid work between full-time and part-time employees are limited to West Germany. There, part-time workers reduce their housework more strongly as their paid work hours and earnings increase, while in East Germany there are no significant differences by level of employment. During their 40-year separation, the two territories recovered, rebuilt, and progressed along notably different trajectories. In the GDR, employment was seen as a mechanism to reduce gender inequality.
To facilitate interpretation, housework time is recoded from hours to minutes. I examine time spent on housework for employed7 women who are between the ages of 25 and 55,8 who are either single or have a partner living in their household. The sample further excludes disabled women and those in the military, and is limited to women with positive earnings and positive number of hours worked for pay. In my analyses, I will not only replicate established findings regarding the rational explanation of housework, but also extend existing research to singles.
How they got here: Germany
Theoretical approaches are best fit to explain the tradeoff between paid and unpaid work, and not very much is known about the determinants of housework time for women who are not in the labor force. The two main theoretical approaches outlined above have been studied in depth, and more recent work has begun to integrate a comparative perspective within housework research . However, comparative research that seeks to identify the effects of sociopolitical context on individual-level outcomes is often hampered by the difficulty of making meaningful comparisons of individuals across different countries. The German case is perfectly suited for this goal, since there is one current unified set of institutions with two different pasts and, as I argue, two different ideological legacies.
Here, we pay homage to some incredible women in a variety of careers and fields who have made a name for themselves as actresses, politicians, artists and more. They are human beings who hail from the Mutterland and who have contributed something special — not just because they are women, but because they’ve added value to society as individuals with a voice that is worth listening to. Gearing up for the war and waging it obliged Nazi leaders to mobilize female workers. Young women provided free labor in annual summer camps, and in 1939 all single women had to report for compulsory labor service in war-related industries. By war’s end, the number of female auxiliaries in the German armed forces approached 500,000, including some 3,700 women who served as guards in the Nazi camp system.
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- I argue that it is important to move beyond regional differences in housework and also distinguish between different levels of labor market participation when examining women’s domestic labor.
- 3Throughout this paper, “determinants of housework” and “mechanisms of housework allocation” are used synonymously.
It was only in 1977 that legislative changes provided for gender equality in marriage; until that date, married women in West Germany could not work without permission from their husbands.In East Germany, however, women had more rights. In Germany, there are also strong regional differences; for instance Southern Germany is more conservative than other parts of Germany; while former East Germany is more supporting of women’s professional life than former West Germany. Of course, there are a variety other factors that affect women’s housework performance but these are not explicitly considered here. That kind of market-focused argument doesn’t fly with critics, who argue that the financial realities are the same for every country that has agreed to equalize pay and believe that national teams have a purpose that goes beyond profit. In the weeks leading up to the UEFA tournament, Spain announced a five-year agreement that grants equal pay and travel conditions for male and female players on its national teams. The Netherlands agreed to pay equal victory bonuses for men and women, with equal pay starting in 2023. And Credit Suisse, the main sponsor for Switzerland’s male and female teams, agreed to pay equal bonuses starting with this year’s competition.
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Historically, as well as presently, the situation of women differed between German regions, notably during the 20th century, when there was a different political and socioeconomic organization in West Germany compared to East Germany. In addition, Southern Germany has a history of strong Roman Catholic influence. Waking up on Monday, the simple fact that Germany lost 2-1 to England at Wembley should make no difference to her petition for “More equality of talent, better stadiums … more spectators and better kick-off times.” Be outgoing and quick with a joke, and be equally quick to laugh at hers. With German women, respect gets respect – she’s going to bring just as many jokes and stories to the table as you are.
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Discussing such an important issue during your dating can be decisive for your relationships and future. Students and scholars of women’s history, modern German history, colonial politics and culture, postcolonial theory, race/ethnicity, and gender will welcome this groundbreaking study. Compared to other Western and even non-Western countries, Germany has a low proportion of women in business leadership roles, lower even than Turkey, Malaysia, Nigeria, Indonesia, Botswana, India. One of the reasons for the low presence of women in key positions is the social norm that considers full-time work inappropriate for women. Germany swept through the group stage, topping Denmark, Spain and Finland by a cumulative 9-0 margin.
Through its annual conference, panels at national professional meetings, and through the publication of theFeminist German Studies, the organization promotes feminist scholarship of outstanding quality. Women in German is committed to making school and college curricula inclusive and seeks to create bridges, cross boundaries, nurture aspiration, and challenge assumptions while exercising critical self-awareness. Women in German is dedicated to eradicating discrimination in the classroom and in the teaching profession at all levels.
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To this end, I examine unpaid domestic labor time for part-time and full-time employed East and West German women using data from the 1991 through 2001 waves of the German Socioeconomic Panel Data . In the next section, I present conventional explanatory approaches to housework allocation and discuss in more detail the role of context, focusing specifically on the example of Germany. 10This measure of housework is not task based; respondents are only asked to not include child care into their housework time. While child care is a demanding task figuring prominently in the lives of families that have children, I choose not to investigate it since this activity is not performed by all women, in particular those without children. The time availability aspect of women’s work is measured by the number of hours worked for pay per week.13 In later parts of the analyses, I distinguish between full-time and part-time employees, using 30 hours per week as a threshold for full-time versus part-time employment. In West Germany, women were perceived and pressured to be wives and mothers first and foremost. As a consequence, women in this region have had weaker preferences for employment than their East German counterparts .
This earnings measure can be interpreted as the percentage difference between individual and mean earnings at the regional level. Evidence regarding East German women’s housework before unification is limited. Geissler provides a summary of a report of the division of labor for a number of housework tasks in both regions covering a time period from 1983 to 1996. This report suggests that while a traditional division of labor is prevalent in both regions of Germany, arrangements have been somewhat less traditional in East Germany. Based on the historical legacy, East German women can be expected to do less housework than their West German counterparts. Although theory suggests that regional differences exist for all subgroups, I explicitly test the role of partnership status by examining single women as well as partnered women. While women in East Germany were encouraged to participate in the workforce, this was not the case in West Germany, where a woman’s primary role was understood to be at home, taking care of her family.
A Deadly Mistake Uncovered on German Women And How to prevent It
While Becker’s arguments about the division of labor and specialization cannot be generalized to single women, the more general time availability approach can; single women’s time available for housework is also limited by the hours they spend on their jobs. For women who are not in the paid labor force, however, the time availability approach cannot explain variation in their housework performance. In the comparison of full-time and part-time workers, I find that the effect of paid work on housework is stronger among part-time than among full-time employees.
Her affinity for color manifested in her famous landscapes, and her earlier works borrowed from the big wigs of Fauvism — specifically, Matisse and Van Gogh. Münter and her then partner, Kadinsky, were prominent leaders in the Munich Avant-garde movement. Her contributions, though not as widely known as some of her contemporaries, remain relevant and inspiring. After abandoning her initial dream of becoming a lawyer after she was discovered at a nightclub by a modeling agency, the humble and svelte Claudia Schiffer would take on a new career path. Claudia had always been beautiful, but her looks weren’t her first priority — ultimately, Karl Lagerfeld made this small-town girl a star by making her the face of Chanel. Later, Claudia would become the face of many campaigns, as well as an actress and a household name. She didn’t necessarily come from humble beginnings, but this modern muse has used her stardom for good.